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E-commerce implies that goods and services can be enterprise, purchased online, whereas e-business might be used as more of an umbrella term for a total Internet presence on the Web, which would include the e-commerce shopping component. The introduction of electronic methods e. It is the government equivalent of e-commerce. An umbrella term for providing computer instruction courseware online over the public Internet, private distance learning networks or inhouse via an Intranet. It is one part of eenterprise, commerce.

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Internet economy A common Latin abbreviation in English that means 'for example' or 'for instance'. It is general only for professionals. An organization of originally European national member organizations based in Belgium that general jointly manages the EAN. Wilhelm Seite 53 von Stand: European Certification Authority Forum Ecuador The rules under which the export of cryptographic software from the US are governed now.

An European, manufacturer-independent, non-profit initiative to link existing PKIs of individual organizations together by incorporating previously issued certificates into a Bridge-CA network. It is an 8-bit code that stores one alphanumeric character or two decimal digits in a byte. A measure of corporation's income. It is the corporation's profit for a particular period before taking interest and tax payments into account. It is the corporation's profit for a particular period before taking interest, tax payments, depreciation and amortization into account.

An electronic version of a traditional print book that can be read by using a PC or by using an eBook reader. An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer or a book-sized computer that is used solely as a handheld reading device. The electronic presentation of statements, bills, invoices and related information sent by a company to its customers, and corresponding payment for goods or services.


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  • It is the corporation's profit for a particular period before taking tax payments into account. A modular suite of specifications by OASIS that enables enterprises to exchange business messages, conduct trading relationships, communicate data in common terms and define and register business processes over the Internet B2B. Advantages: quick; easy to compute parallel. Disadvantages: pattern in the clear text lead to pattern in the cipher text; smaller blocks must be filled up 'padding'.

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    Wilhelm Context program, Sun cryptography country cryptography IBM, standard Erlangen economy economy slang general economy enterprise economy economy general enterprise country, TLD cryptography cryptography cryptography organization Seite 54 von Stand: It can be used to define both an algorithm for key agreement analog of DH and an algorithm for digital signature analog of DSA.

    The error simplest form of error detection is a single added parity bit or a CRC. Fehlerkorrektur-Code A type of memory that includes special circuitry for testing the accuracy of data and correcting memory the data if necessary. Exportkontrolle"When exporting commodities out of the US A benchmark and implementation for measuring performance and scalability of J2EE servers.

    Replaced by the Euro. A patented but open standard and royalty-free lossy image compression technology that compression, allows to reduce image file sizes from up to while retaining high quality. Wilhelm error, security Seite 55 von Stand: A faster version of the GSM wireless service, that is designed to deliver data at rates up to Kbps and enable the delivery of broadband applications to mobile phone users.

    The direct, standardized, electronic communication of business transactions, such as orders, confirmations and invoices, between organizations. It defines application layer syntax. It is widely used by the UN. It eliminates wait states by keeping the output buffer active until the next cycle begins. The first name used for the computer field, computing in general. Context cryptography An enhancement to Bluetooth 1. An international non-profit association founded by privacy and civil rights non-governmental organizations in the EU whose goals include the defense and promotion of civil rights in the field of information- and communication technology.

    Formed in March , it is an international, non-profit making organisation which provides an independent forum for all participants in electronic business. It shall "demonstrate interoperable It indicates that the proportion of false acceptances is equal to the proportion of false rejections. A low EER value indicates a high accuracy of the system. An US government proposed standard for escrowing private keys. It provides for decryption of encrypted telecommunications when interception is lawfully authorized.

    A part of the eEurope initiative that "aims to accelerate and harmonise the development of smart cards across Europe and to establish them It contains the eESC's objectives.


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    Wilhelm telecom net government enterprise, net Internet memory general organization company TLD general country, TLD organization smartcard memory security cryptography smartcard smartcard Seite 56 von Stand: File containing data. The interface consists of data tables that contain platform-related information, plus boot and runtime service calls that are available to the OS and its loader. Together, these provide a standard environment for booting an OS and running pre-boot applications. A service to protect the privacy of user data that was introduced with Windows Users or cryptography, administrators can selectively encrypt files and folders on NTFS 5 file systems.

    It comprises a patient data government, card and a HPC. The HPC will provide electronic signatures right from the beginning. It is an interdomain reachability protocol used in the Internet. An internal Web site that provides proprietary, enterprise-wide access to information and services for company employees as well as to selected public Web sites. The back-end applications that comprise an enterprise's existing system for handling company-wide information. There occurs the traditional data processing in an organization, which includes the databases, mainframe and ERP applications.

    An information system that consolidates and summarizes ongoing transactions within the organization. It provides top management with all the information it requires at all times from internal and external sources. A project based evaluation service from a German security company that provides a combination of security consulting and computer aided security analysis for the IT division s of enterprises.

    It uses a "container" layer that provides common functions and delivers a Sun consistent interface to the applications. Wilhelm cryptography organization, Unix government Seite 58 von Stand: A membership organization devoted to promoting e-mail, voice mail, fax, EDI and other messaging technologies. Emacs is extensible - it is easy to add application, Unix new functions; customizable - you can rebind keys, and modify the behavior of existing functions; self-documenting - there is extensive on-line, context-sensitive help; and has a real-time WYSIWYG display.

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    It can usually provide UMB as well. Electronic Music Management elektronisches Software by IBM which "provides an industry independent foundation for delivery of digital System Musikverwaltungssystem assets that creates new business models, enables flexible DRM and helps protect the assets through their entire life cycle. Wilhelm mail, net company general company organization country graphic slang telecom memory, PC IBM mail general Seite 59 von Stand: It supports messages that include pixel pictures and animations, sound effects, ring signals and formatted text.

    Nodes are defined as Type 5 hosts , Type 4 communications controllers and Type 2 peripheral; terminals, PCs and midrange computers. By means of a solutions catalogue, companies and government authorities can present IT products, services and projects for the E-government". It will also seek to develop a culture of network and information security for the benefit of citizens, A middleware as "integration software Indicates the end of a file.

    The executive arm of the European Patent Organisation grants European patents for the contracting states to the European Patent Convention. It concentrates on the core privacy authorization while abstracting from deployment details. UCC by assigning a unique number to every single item that is manufactured. Its design Befehlen philosophy states that the compiler should decide which instructions be executed together. Liste evaluierter Produkte A list of information system equipment items that have been evaluated against, and found to be compliant with, particular set of criteria e.

    Internet An application layer client-server protocol for the provisioning and management of objects stored in a shared central repository. Specified in XML, it defines generic object management operations and an extensible framework that maps protocol operations to objects. It meets and exceeds the requirements for a GRRP. It has a lifespan of a few hundred write cycles. An extension of the PostScript file format used to transfer a graphic image between applications and platforms.

    An integrated information system that serves the "front office" departments within an organization e. ERMs are often created graphically. Wilhelm Seite 61 von Stand: An ETSI deliverable, containing normative provisions, approved for publication by application of the membership approval procedure. Context enterprise An European inter-governmental organization with the mission to provide and promote the exploitation of space science, research, technology, and applications. Introduced in Distributing new software via the network rather than individual installations on each machine.

    It provides secure communications that customers use to download and pay for software. Sparks that jump from an electrically-charged object to an approaching conductive object. A specialized, open network that is designed to offer universal data access for every major computing platform, OS, and application. By EMC Inc. Sicherheits-Kapselung von Nutzdaten An upper level IP header that denotes that the contents of the payload are encrypted and possibly also otherwise protected.

    Wilhelm net, program net cryptography, net telecom country Seite 62 von Stand: It promotes worldwide standards, and its efforts are coordinated with the ITU. It is working as a virtual company using the resources of their shareholders to teleCOMmunications Telekommunikation perform high-impact research projects. Wilhelm Seite 63 von Stand: A logical volume management system for Linux with "a plug-in model that allows for easy expansion or customization A format that is a standard for storing interchange information in digital photography image files, especially those using JPEG compression.

    A journaling extension to the standard ext2 file system on Linux. A "neutral and independent Internet Exchange in Frankfurt, Germany" with the purpose "to enhance traffic exchange as well as to improve business relationships between ISPs". A collection of commonly-asked questions about a subject along with the answers. The percentage of impostors accepted by a biometric or other identification check.

    The part of the DOS file system that keeps track of where data is stored on disk. A process by which fixed graphic material including pictures, text, or images is scanned and the information converted into electrical signals which are transmitted via telephone to produce a paper copy of the graphics on the receiving fax machine. Glas- Faserkanal A high-speed serial data transfer architecture standardized by ANSI and used for mass storage devices to build SANs and other peripheral devices that require very high bandwidth.

    It may carry different protocols and uses the Gigabit Ethernet physical layer. Finger gekreuzt A text messaging abbreviation as it is used e. It is the mother of Signcard. Framework Class Library Rahmen-Klassenbibliothek MS's collection of basic type classes for developers is universal to all. NET languages. It is used as a transmission protocol for high performance networks. It is used to submit form data to a server, to receive a response, and to incorporate it back into a form.

    Frequenzverteilungs-Mehrfachzugang A technology used in analog cellular telephone networks that divides the spectrum into 30 Frequency Division Multiple Access kHz channels. Shimizu and S. Methode der finiten Elemente Finite Element Method or A CAD method that determines the structural integrity of a mechanical part or physical construction under design by mathematical simulation of the part and its loading condition. Sometimes called a communications controller.

    Services include data link activation, polling, and error detection and correction. Model numbers The interface simulates the terminals that the other programs use. The guidelines are intended to support interoperability It reduces interference and enhances data privacy. Contrast to LIFO. It supports a variety of electronic banking services like money Vorgangsabwicklung transfers, bank statements, time deposits, investments and the whole area of online brokerage.

    It also supports the new banking signature card. Its goal is to Informationspolitik identify technical developments Floating-point PC, unit operations include any operations that involve fractional numbers. Primarily used to calculate and predict risks for safety and insurance purposes, FMEA identifies all the ways in which it is possible for each component to fail and then follows through the consequence of each type of failure. This header identifies the transaction program that is to be put into execution and connected to the receiving half-session.

    A print formatter driven by XSL formatting objects. The first high-level programming language and compiler, developed in by IBM. An European meeting of software developers "organized by volunteers, to promote the widespread use of free and open source software". Here 'free' means freedom, but not necessarily free of cost.

    An earlier DRAM chip design, where a row is selected only once for all the columns bits within the row, resulting in faster access. The unit of measurement of the frame a still image rate of a moving image. A computer circuit that handles floating point operations. Wilhelm country, TLD organization organization slang markup law program organization law, program telecom chip memory graphic, unit processor Seite 67 von Stand: It maps to one IP address and is registered with one of the international NICs - a registered, identified user site.

    A packet-mode switching interface for handling high-speed data and interconnecting LANs and WANs in low error-rate environments. It uses variable packets frames as the transfer format with less overhead and sequence checking. The percentage of valid users rejected by a biometric or other identification check. Its main work program is supporting the GNU project, started by R. Wilhelm Seite 68 von Stand: It seeks to ensure that the markets function competitively.

    Angst, Unsicherheit und Zweifel A strategy intended to make a company's customers insecure about future product plans with the purpose of discouraging them from adopting competitors' products. Wozu soll das gut sein? A subseries of informative RFCs that are not technical standards or descriptions of protocols. A German, globally operating company that was initially specialized in banknote and securities printing. Today it is also a supplier of smart cards and system solutions for electronic payments, health care, identity, and Internet security PKI.

    Refers to one government agency communicating with another government agency. Wilhelm Context organization, telecom net economy, government general Internet, Unix telecom telecom Curiavant general enterprise slang PC memory, PC Nuremberg Internet, security slang Internet country slang Internet, standard slang slang slang company government government slang slang government slang slang Seite 69 von Stand: Introduced in , it was the first enterprise server line to use IBM's copper chip technology.

    A set of accounting principles that are generally accepted by accounting profession in the USA. A comprehensive hierarchy of guidance to provide a globally consistent, practical framework for information security promoted by the ISSA and the IISF. The audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of the US Congress.

    Wilhelm Seite 70 von Stand: Its organization, mission is signals intelligence and Information Assurance IA. It is a saved system intended for use with SNA products. A graphical interface that formats and displays characters, graphics, and images on graphic, IBM, workstation display devices that support the X Window System. X11 The graphics display system in MS Windows. When an application needs to display or print, it graphic, MS makes a call to a GDI function and sends it the parameters for the object that must be created.

    GDI in turn "draws" the object by sending commands to the device. According to regulations in Germany all digitally originated business documents relevant to enterprise, tax must be archived electronically in a change-proof format from January 1, The government German tax authority has the right to access these data electronically. Wilhelm Seite 71 von Stand: It has the legal status of a commercial association and is subject to supervision and control.

    The executive board of an enterprise. A leading market research company from Germany. It is an historic protocol to exchange routing information. In addition to this role, it had to route datagrams that were passing through the core system. Its status is not recommended. A GID is associated with each file, indicating the group to which its group permissions apply. An interoperability framework for identification, validation and electronic signature with smart cards for Internet applications. It is part of the eESCC common specifications. It compression, supports color 8 bit [] , various resolutions and lossless data compression.

    Internet A protocol to create grouped symmetric keys and distribute them amongst communicating peers. HOB A text messaging abbreviation as it is used e. EXPRESS language An international standard for the computerinterpretable representation and exchange of product data, independent from any particular system. Geographie-Auszeichnungssprache An XML encoding for the transport and storage of geographic information, including both the spatial and non-spatial properties of geographic features. Wilhelm country economy organization standard graphic, markup Seite 73 von Stand: The successor to the responsibilities of the DNSO that relate to the generic top-level domains.

    Stallman and sponsored by the FSF that develops and maintains a complete software environment including OS kernel and utilities, editor, compiler and debugger. It is intended to replace UNIX. It is implemented on top of the networking layer and allows anonymous censorship-resistant file-sharing. GnuPG for making use of a fortified encrypting technology accessible to anybody.

    Wilhelm Seite 74 von Stand: IP , creating a virtual point-topoint link. It also provides a lightweight encapsulation for use in policy based routing. It is intended to guarantee the freedom to share and change free software 'copyleft'. The over-all staff council of a large governmental agency with several branch offices.

    An enhancement to the GSM mobile communications system that supports data packets. It enables continous flows of IP packets over the system e. A system of 24 satellites for identifying earth locations, launched by the US DoD. By triangulation of signals from at least three of the satellites, a receiving unit can pinpoint its current location anywhere on earth to within a few meters. A dedicated graphics rendering device processor for a PC, workstation, or game console. It addresses technology vendors, network service providers, and response teams in their roles assisting organizations in resolving security incidents.

    Generic Registry-Registrar allgemeines RegistratorA client-server protocol for the registration and management of Internet domain names in Protocol Registrierungsprotokoll shared registries. It aims to security achieve a security level that is adequate to satisfy normal protection requirements and can also serve as the basis for IT systems requiring a higher degree of protection. A library of object-oriented graphical interface elements for developing X Window applications. A graphics-based user interface that incorporates windows, icons, buttons, menus and a pointer for the input and output of a program.

    It is the standard way users interact with a computer. Contrast to CLI. It is used to identify a particular device, component, user, or session. Bezeichner allgemeine Sicherheit oberer A five-part standard for the exchange of security information and security-transformation Schichten functions that protect confidentiality and integrity of application data. They function at layer 4 and above in the OSI model. A very successful German TV soap. It was developed primarily to support video phones and video conferencing.

    An ITU standard based on H. It supports CIF and various derivatives. It is widely supported for Internet telephony. This optimizes application execution and scalability and protects against unplanned outages and server downtime. Since version 2. Wilhelm Seite 77 von Stand: A consumer high-definition digital video format developed by Canon, Sharp, Sony, and JVC with x pixels format or x pixels format. A range of the RF spectrum with frequencies from 3 MHz to 30 MHz, corresponding to wavelengths in the free space between m and 10 m.

    A flexible access and transmission system, combining coaxial and fiber-optic cable. It offers increased bandwidth, supports simultaneous analog and digital transmission and all current and emerging transmission technologies ATM, frame relay, SONET. Rarely used instead of 'High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection' see above. A specification from Intel for protecting copyrighted digital video content that uses the DVI by encrypting its transmission between the video source and the digital display receiver.

    A disk drive used to read and write data on a hard disk. Uses a header with control information and a trailing cyclic redundancy check character which is usually 16 or 32 bits in length. It was developed by Phone. Context memory, PC telecom memory memory, PC graphic graphic memory, PC net general markup graphic telecom graphic PC general compression, standard slang telecom telecom Erlangen A file organization method that stores data in a top-to-bottom organization structure like a tree.

    It is named after its sponsor, the founder of Utimaco AG. Equipment for the reproduction of sound with high fidelity. The hardware hookup is handled via normal emulation. SYS driver. MD5, SHA-1 in combination with a secret shared key. Its cryptographic strength depends on the properties of the underlying hash function. It database establishes an administrative relationship between two DSAs, one of which holds an immediately superior subtree, and the other holds an immediately subordinate subtree.

    It allows data transmission at a rate of 10 Mbps over a standard telephone line's home wiring system using the Ethernet protocol. Wilhelm Seite 79 von Stand: HSM software constantly monitors hard disk capacity and moves data from one storage level to the next based on age, category and other criteria. Host or Hardware Security Module Host- oder HardwareA hardware device used for storing keys and performing cryptographic functions under control cryptography Sicherheitsmodul of a host computer.

    A lead router is monitored by other routers in a group, and if it fails, one of these Protocol standby routers inherits the lead position. Wilhelm Seite 80 von Stand: A hypertext document format and authoring language used on the WWW. It conventionally uses port The GNU project's replacement for the Unix kernel is a collection of servers that run on the Mach microkernel to implement file systems, network protocols, file access control, and other features that are implemented by the Unix kernel. Machinery and equipment CPU, disks, tapes, modem, cables, etc.

    The frequency of vibrations cycles per second. The packet-based information service Web browsing, e-mail etc. Internationalisierung The process of preparing software to support any language without cultural contents. The successor to the microprocessor was the first Intel processor with bit data and address busses. It may also refer to all bit members of the Intel x86 family. This includes providing for restoration of information systems by incorporating protection, detection, and reaction capabilities.

    It is designed for fast parallel instruction execution and expected in The governing body of the Internet, responsible for looking at the "big picture" of it. An organization of computer systems security professionals providing a certification program, publications, workshops, seminars, and consulting services. A part of DARPA that "will imagine, develop, apply, integrate, demonstrate and transition information technologies, components and prototype, closed-loop, information systems that will counter asymmetric threats by achieving total information awareness useful for preemption; national security warning; and These are basic functions of an interoperable smart card application.

    It is developing a set of global accounting standards that require transparent, comparable information in financial statements. Beziehungen office for international relations An office being part of the Nuremberg municipal administration. Wilhelm company slang organization, security company, security security Internet, standard slang government, security smartcard economy, standard economy, organization, standard economy, organization organization, security Nuremberg slang Seite 82 von Stand: An IP gateway running on Intel based computers developed by K. The world largest computer manufacturer invented mainframe and PC.

    It was introduced in It is made out of a semiconductor material. It has enhanced features compared to RDP from Microsoft. It is the Namen u. Nummern successor to IANA, which manages Internet addresses, domain names and the huge number of parameters associated with Internet protocols port numbers, router protocols, multicast addresses, etc. It provides a common format for requesting services using standard HTTP messaging.

    It is part of X11 since R6. It permits routers to inform other funktrionen im Internet routers or hosts of IP routing problems or suggested better routes. It is also used by the ping utility to verify the existence of an IP address. It provides interactive chat, e-mail and file transfer and can alert you when someone on your predefined list has suche Dich also come online.

    Recognition International Content Rating Internationale Vereinigung zur "An international, independent organization that empowers the public The combination of the hardware cryptographic feature and ICSF provides secure high-speed cryptographic services. The study of the technology used to handle information and aid communication. Also: The hash value obtained by it. Unique number or string that denotes an object like an user, a device, a field etc.

    A follow-up program to IDA that "will both continue present IDA activities and provide greater government assistance in the delivery of pan-European eGovernment services PC internationaler A secret key cryptography method introduced in that uses a bit key. Written by X. Massey in Switzerland, it uses the block cipher method which breaks the text into bit blocks before encrypting them. Wilhelm Seite 84 von Stand: Apple www.

    It enables the user to view Web pages. It supports ActiveX. It is involved with setting standards. IEEE Covers network management, etc. It provides 1 or 2 Mbps transmission in the 2. It uses an Also referred to as Wilhelm Seite 85 von Stand: A group of broadband wireless communications standards for MANs. It provides a viable last mile technology. It covers discrete logarithm e. DSA , elliptic curve, and integer factorization standard e. RSA ; and covers key agreement, digital signature, and encryption.

    It government Delivery einer Dienstleistung was designed "to meet the specific business requirements of assisted service delivery via call centres and one-stop shops and self service delivery via the Internet and kiosks. Organisation des Internets www. It comprises a membership organization Phonographic Industry phonographischen Industrie of record producers and distributors in 76 countries.

    Multiple file systems allow different types of file structures to be accessed. Different systems can be installed UNIX etc. Wilhelm Seite 86 von Stand: SYS which, among other things, translates bit to bit calls. IGRP takes bandwidth, latency, reliability and current traffic load into consideration.

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    It is typically used within an autonomous system. It "is dedicated to advancing the home technology market by helping member companies build a market for products and services that require a broadband or persistent Internet connection. It represents the interests of all commercial enterprises in a specific area.

    It implies a company that specializes in a niche area e. An international professional association, organized on a worldwide basis, dedicated to the promotion and development of the practice of internal auditing including governance and internal control, IT audit, education, and security. When a user accesses a Web page that uses a CORBA object, a small Java applet is downloaded into the Browser, which invokes the ORB to pass data to the object, execute the object and get the results back.

    We deliver the very latest information to business professionals in the form of conferences, courses, seminars, exhibitions and publications. Its intent organization, Informationssicherheit is to establish standards, certification, testing and coordination between public and private security and between US and foreign entities. Wilhelm Seite 87 von Stand: Ich liebe Dich!

    It must be interpreted or compiled into machine language for execution. A keyboard-based type of communications service over the Internet that enables you to create a private chat room with other individuals. It requires that all parties are online at the same time. An entry-level PC series from Apple introduced in that combines the computer and screen in one unit.

    It is intended for home, school, and small offices. A standard mail server expected to be widely used on the Internet. It provides a message store that holds incoming e-mail until users log on and download it. IMAP4 is the latest version. It is more sophisticated than the POP3 mail server. It is mainly used in embedded systems. An unique number for each mobile phone. It is on a strip normally located behind the battery of the handset. Wilhelm Seite 88 von Stand: It is designed to provide Internet access for people who may not be literate.

    Now known as PSN. It was widely implemented throughout the s and continues to be used. Internet Multicasting Service Internet Mehrfachsendedienst A nonprofit public research corporation that builds and maintains public works projects on the Internet. It is accredited by, and operates under rules approved by, the ANSI.

    It refers to security measures that implement and assure security services in computer systems i. Instead of simulating internal Windows logic like a virtual machine or emulator, Wine translates Windows API calls into POSIX calls on-the-fly, eliminating the performance and memory penalties of other methods and allowing you to cleanly integrate Windows applications into your desktop.

    What's new in this release: New version of the Mono engine with upstream updates. PE dlls no longer rely on the MinGW runtime. Exception handling fixes on ARM Various bug fixes. The source is available now. While Microsoft extensively documents most Win32 functions, some areas such as file formats and protocols have no publicly available specification from Microsoft. Microsoft Windows also includes undocumented low-level functions, undocumented behavior and obscure bugs that Wine must duplicate precisely in order to allow some applications to work properly. Consequently, the Wine team has reverse-engineered many function calls and file formats in such areas as thunking The Wine project originally released Wine under the same MIT License as the X Window System, but owing to concern about proprietary versions of Wine not contributing their changes back to the core project, work as of March has used the LGPL for its licensing.

    Wine officially entered beta with version 0. Version 1. Development versions are released roughly every two weeks. CrossOver includes some application-specific tweaks not considered suitable for the WineHQ version, as well as some additional proprietary components. The involvement of Corel for a time assisted the project, chiefly by employing Julliard and others to work on it. Corel later cancelled all Linux-related projects after Microsoft made major investments in Corel, stopping their Wine effort.

    Other corporate sponsors include Google, which hired CodeWeavers to fix Wine so Picasa ran well enough to be ported directly to Linux using the same binary as on Windows; Google later paid for improvements to Wine's support for Adobe Photoshop CS2. Wine is also a regular beneficiary of Google's Summer of Code program. Software architecture Wine implements the Windows application binary interface ABI entirely in user space, rather than as a kernel module. Services normally provided by the kernel in Windows[26] are provided by a daemon known as the wineserver, whose task is to implement basic Windows functionality, as well as integration with the X Window System, and translation of signals into native Windows exceptions.

    Although Wine implements some aspects of the Windows kernel, it is not possible to use native Windows drivers with it, due to Wine's underlying architecture. This prevents certain applications and games from working, for example those using StarForce copy-protection which requires virtual device drivers to be installed. Wine is also available for NetBSD and a number of other systems via pkgsrc. After some modification to Wine, it is now possible to use Direct3D 9 games without the requirement to translate Direct3D calls into OpenGL calls, thus gaining a huge performance boost.

    Functionality The developers of the Direct3D portions of Wine have continued to implement new features such as pixel shaders to increase game support. Wine can also use native DLLs directly, thus increasing functionality, but then a license for Windows is needed unless the DLLs were distributed with the application itself. Winecfg makes configuring Wine easier by making it unnecessary to edit the registry directly, although, if needed, this can be done with the included registry editor similar to Windows regedit.

    Wine also includes its own open-source implementations of several other Windows programs, such as notepad, wordpad, control, iexplore, and explorer. Backward compatibility Wine ensures good backward compatibility with legacy Windows applications, including those written for Windows 3. Wine can mimic different Windows versions required for some programs, going as far back as Windows version 2. However, Windows 1.

    Backward compatibility in Wine is superior to that of Windows, as newer versions of Windows can force users to upgrade legacy Windows applications. In many cases, Wine can offer better legacy support than newer versions of Windows with "Compatibility Mode". Wine can run bit Windows programs on a bit operating system, which uses an x bit CPU. Wine partially supports Windows console applications, and the user can choose which backend to use to manage the console choices include raw streams, curses, and user When using the raw streams or curses backends, Windows applications will run in a Unix terminal.

    This requires at least gcc version 4. However, as almost all Windows applications are currently available in bit versions, and the bit version of Wine can run on bit platforms, this is seen as a non-issue. The bit port of Wine also has preliminary WoW64 support as of April , which allows both bit and bit Windows applications to run inside the same Wine instance. Third-party applications Some applications require more tweaking than simply installing the application in order to work properly, such as manually configuring Wine to use certain Windows DLLs.

    The Wine project does not integrate such workarounds into the Wine codebase, instead preferring to focus solely on improving Wine's implementation of the Windows ABI. While this approach focuses Wine development on long-term compatibility, it makes it difficult for users to run applications that require workarounds.